The Effect of Training, Digital Transformation, and Work Motivation on Employee Performance during the Covid-19 Period: A Study on Culinary UMKM Employees in Manado City

  • Dwiranni Feibry Lumunon Student of Master Management Program, Faculty of Economics and Business, Sam Ratulangi University Manado, Indonesia
  • James DD Massie Department of Management Program, Faculty of Economics and Business, Sam Ratulangi University Manado, Indonesia
  • Irvan Trang Department of Management Program, Faculty of Economics and Business, Sam Ratulangi University Manado, Indonesia
Keywords: Employee Performance, Training, Digital Transformation, Motivation


Almost all MSMEs including culinary businesses are affected by the Covid-19 Virus, the economy and business have decreased. This can also have an impact on decreasing employee's performance. Therefore, understanding and analyzing several factors that affect employee performance such as training factors, digital transformation, and employee motivation in the MSME business sector, especially culinary during the Covid-19 pandemic, is felt to be necessary so that it becomes the goal of this research. Taking primary data from 100 employee respondents in 10 MSME Culinary restaurants in Manado City and using multiple regression analysis methods. This study found that simultaneously training, digital transformation, and motivation factors had an effect on increasing employee performance. If viewed separately, the digital transformation and motivation factors that affect employee performance while the training factor has no effect. These results recommend that it is necessary for business actors and the government to continue to improve training in this Covid-19 period to be able to improve employee performance, digital-based production processes, and increase employee motivation. It is also necessary to further investigate other factors that can improve the performance of MSME employees during this Covid-19 period.


1. Kankaew, K., Yapanto, LM, Waramontri, R., & Arief, S. (2021). Uncertain Supply Chain Management Supply chain management and logistics presentation : Mediation effect of competitive advantage. 9, 255–264.
2. Adhitama J. and Riyanto S; 2020; Maintaining Employee Engagement and Employee Performance during Covid-19 Pandemic at PT Koexim Mandiri Finance; Quest Journal Journal of Research in Business and Management; ISSN Online 2347-3002.
3. Akdon and Riduwan (2013), Formulas and Data in Statistics Applications, Bandung: Alfabeta.
4. Alves JC at all; 2020; Crisis management for small business during the Covid-19 outbreak: survival, resilience and renewal strategies of firm in Macau; Researchsquare;
5. Bartic Alexander W at all; 2020; The impact of covid-19 on small business outcomes and expectations; working paper 20-102 Harvard Business School.
6. Beglaryan M and Shakhmuradyan G; 2020; The impact of covid-19 on small medium-sized enterprises in Armenia: Evidence from a labor force survey; Small Business International Review; 2531 0046/https://doi.otg/10.26784/sbir.v412.298
7. (2021), Report on the Impact of Covid-19 Survey on Business Actors, ISBN: 978-602-438-350-3, Publisher BPS RI
8. CNBCIndonesia.Com (2020), Sadly, MSME Turnover Down 30% during the Covid-19/December 15, 2020 Pandemic Masa
9. (2020), 6 months have passed, when did the corona actually enter Indonesia? September 2020.
10. Dessler and Diana (2015), Human Resource Management Edition 14, Translation Edition, Salemba Empat Publishers, Jakarta
11. (2021) 4 Big impact of strict PSBB implementation, detikfinance/business economic news/11 january 2021
12. Fitriasari, F; 2020; How do small and medium enterprises (SME) survive the Covid-19 outbreak?; Journal of Economic Innovation; E-ISSN 2686-3804
13. Gigauri Iza; 2020; Influence of Covid-19 Crisis on Human Resource Management and Companies' Response: The Expert Study; International Journal of Management Science and Business Administration Volume 6, Issue 6,
14. September 2020, Pages 15-24 DOI: 10.18775/ijmsba.1849-5664-5419.2014.66.1002 URL:
15. Hadiono Kristophorus and Santi Rina CN (2020), Welcoming Digital Transformation, SENDIU 2020 Proceedings, ISBN: 978-979-3649-72-6
16. Hamid Mahmud at all; 2020; Impact of coronavirus (covid-19) and employees' reaction to changes on employee performance of Bangladesh; The international journal of business and management/research gate; ISSN 2321-8916; DOI: 10.24940/theijbm/2020/v8/i8/BM2008-013\
17. Hasibuan, Malay SP. (2017), Human Resource Management. Revised Edition. Jakarta: Earth Literacy.
18. Jawa Pos.Com (2021), Akumindo Believes MSME Contribution This Year Reaches Rp. 2.3 Trillion/Economy/7 February 2021
19. Jacob Prochazka at all; 2020; Data on work-related consequences of Covid-19 pandemic for employees across Europe; Data in Brief (2020) 106174; https://doi.or/10.1016/j.dib.2020.106174
20. John Karr, Katherine Loh and Andre Wirjo; 2020; Supporting MSME's Digitalization Amid Covid-19; APEC Policy support unit policy Brief No 35 July 2020
21. Indonesian Banking Development Institute and Bank Indonesia (2015), MSME Business Profile Report 2015.
22. Lingfeng Bao at all; 2020; How does Working from Home Aect Developer Productivity? – A Case Study of Baidu During the COVID-19 Pandemic; Empirical Software Engineering manuscript
23. (2020), First Quarter 2020 Economic Growth is a Picture of Losses Due to Corona, liputan6/business/economy/2 June 2020.
24. Mangkunegara Prabu (2015), Company Human Resource Management, PT. Rosdakarya Youth, Bandung.
25. Mathis RL and Jackson JH (2002), Human Resource Management, Translation Edition, Salemba Empat, Jakarta
26. Mustajab at all; 2020; Working from Home Phenomenon as an Effort to Prevent COVID-19 Attacks and Its Impacts on Work Productivity; The international journal of applied business/TIJAB; e-ISSN 2599-0705
27. Panisoara at all; 2020; Motivation and Continuance Intention towards Online Instruction among Teachers during the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Mediating Effect of Burnout and Technostress; international journal of environmental research and public health; doi:10.3390/ijerph17218002
28. Perkin, Neil and Abraham, Peter (2020), Digital Transformation for Business Agility. Indonesian Language Publisher, PT. Gramedia Widiasarana Indonesia, Jakarta Indonesia
29. Priyatna Andri (2008), Digital Transformation as a Process of Preserving Intellectual Information Content (Case Study at the National Library of Indonesia), Thesis of the Department of Library and Information Sciences, Faculty of Cultural Sciences, University of Indonesia.
30. Priyono, Moin Oktaviani Putri; 2020; Identifying Digital Transformation Paths in the Business Model of SMEs during the COVID-19 Pandemic; Journal of Open Innovation; doi:10.3390/joitmc6040104
31. Seema Rani, Curtis P., and Jayashankar Reddy; 2020; A Study on Work from Home, Motivation & Productivity of Employees in Indian Population during COVID-19 Pandemic
32. Sedarmayanti. 2016. Human Resource Management Bureaucratic Reform And. Civil Servant Management. Bandung: PT. Aditama Refika.
33. Sembiring MJ and Fatihudin D; 2020; Banking Employee Performance During the Covid-19 Pandemic: Remuneration And Motivation; Journal of Xi'an University of Architecture & Technology; Volume XII, Issue VII, 2020 ISSN No : 1006-7930
34. Shubham RC and Anugrag KK; 2020; A statistical impact analysis of human resource management (HRM) practices on employee performance post covid-19; International research journal of engineering and technology (IRJET); e-ISSN 2395-0056
35. Sudjana Djudju (2007) Education and Training, Educational Science and Applications, Part 4 Cross-Sectoral Education, FIP-UPI Educational Science Development Team
36. (2021), Total Covid-19 Cases Reached 105 Million, Watch the UPDATE of the World Corona Virus today 5 February 2021, February 2021.
37. Review Dilber; 2019; Digital Transformation Process and SMEs; Procedia Computer Science Journal 158 (2019) 662-671
38. Winarsih, Indriastuti and Fuad; 2020; Impact of Covid-19 on Digital Transformation and Sustainability in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs): A Conceptual Framework; Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021 L. Barolli et al. (Eds.): CISIS 2020, AISC 1194, pp. 471–476, 2021.
39. Kankaew, K., Yapanto, LM, Waramontri, R., Arief, S., Hamsir, Sastrawati, N., & Espinoza-Maguiña, MR (2021). Supply chain management and logistics presentation: Mediation effect of competitive advantage. Uncertain Supply Chain Management, 9(2), 255–264.
How to Cite
Lumunon, D. F., Massie, J. D., & Trang, I. (2021). The Effect of Training, Digital Transformation, and Work Motivation on Employee Performance during the Covid-19 Period: A Study on Culinary UMKM Employees in Manado City. Central Asian Journal of Literature, Philosophy and Culture, 2(8), 22-37.